The following table summarizes classic studies of the elite, with a focus on the U.S. The table can be downloaded here: Summary of Elite Studies
|Researcher(s)||What institutions do they influence?||What else do they influence?||How do they influence it?||Degree of Elite Cohesion|
|Power Elite||Mills (1957), Domhoff, Dye (1968-2000)||Focus is on political, economic, and military institutions||Ideology, national policy||Internal cohesion, move in similar social circles, nepotism||High|
|Strategic Elites||Keller (1963)||Varies||Ideology, national policy within their sphere of influence||Using their position within the institution of which they control||High (within their institution)|
|Inner Circle||Useem (1982)||Corporations||Economic and political policy supporting capitalism||Similar interests||Moderate-High|
|Interlocking Directorates||Mizruchi (1970 – 2004)||Corporations||Economic and political policy supporting capitalism||Similar interests||Moderate-High|
See also the “Ruling Class” theories of Gramsci andPareto (early 1900’s), who argue that elites employ intellectuals to manipulate ideology in order to legitimize their rule. They argue that the degree of elite cohesion is high.